Pets & Animal-Assisted Therapy

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 Question mark: This treatment has not been properly researched. It is not possible to say whether they are useful or not.


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  • 3 smiliesThese treatments are very useful. They are strongly supported as effective by scientific evidence.
  • 2 smiliesThese treatments are useful. They are supported by scientific evidence as effective, but the evidence is not as strong.
  • 1 smileyThese treatments are promising and may be useful. They have some evidence to support them, but more evidence is needed to be sure they work.
  • No smiley On the available evidence, these treatments do not seem to be effective.
  • Question markThese treatments have not been properly researched. It is not possible to say whether they are useful or not.
  • Exclamation MarkSafety or other concerns have been raised for the use of these treatments.

What is it?

When discussed as a treatment for depression, Animal-Assisted Therapy generally refers to targeted interventions, such as swimming with dolphins or having dogs visiting care facilities. Animal-Assisted Therapy can also be combined with Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy.

Animal therapy may also refer to the general companionship of living with an animal – having a pet. Some people also have psychiatric assistance dogs, which is a dog who has been trained to assist their owner manage their mental health.

How does it work?

There are many ways that animals might help to improve mood. Interacting with animals can be a fun, rewarding experience, or a kind of pleasant activity. Having a pet animal can provide companionship and a sense of responsibility which might be helpful for some people with depression.

Psychiatric assistance dogs can be trained to perform certain behaviours to help their owners manage their mood. For example, an assistance dog might nudge or lick their owner to keep them focused on the present, or stand alongside them to create a barrier between their owner and other people. These types of behaviours can be especially helpful for people with anxiety, which commonly co-occurs with depression.

Is it effective?

There are a few studies which have looked at Animal-Assisted Therapy for the treatment of depression. The types of Animal-Assisted Therapy looked at in these studies include swimming with dolphins, working with cows on a dairy farm, looking after birds, and interacting with dogs. In most of these studies, people who took part in the Animal-Assisted Therapy had a greater reduction in depression symptoms compared to people who did not have the therapy. However, there could be many reasons for this finding. For example, it is not clear if the contact with animals improved mood, or if people felt better simply because they participated in a fun, novel experience. The long-term outcomes were also not assessed.

Most of the research on Animal-Assisted Therapy for depression has been conducted with older adults, so it is unclear if this type of therapy is helpful for younger adults and adolescents.

There have been no scientific studies which have looked at the effect of household pets or psychiatric assistance dogs as a treatment for depression.

Are there any disadvantages?

Contact with animals may not be suitable for people who have a fear of animals or are allergic to animal hair. Animal-assisted therapy is not widely available and may be expensive.

Owning a pet is a long-term commitment. Although pets can give affection and companionship, they require the same level of care in return, and anyone thinking about getting a pet should consider this decision seriously. The RSPCA has published helpful guides for people who are considering getting a dog or a cat.

Where do you get it?

In Australia, animal therapy providers can be found in the Natural Therapy directory.

Pets can be adopted from the RSPCA and other rescue organisations. If you are looking to purchase an animal from a breeder, make sure to find a reputable breeder who ensures the welfare of their animals.

If you are interested in getting a psychiatric assistance dog, mindDog Australia can help you find, train and certify your dog to become a recognised assistance animal.


Interacting with pets and animals can be a fun and positive experience, however there is not enough good evidence at this stage to recommend Animal-Assisted Therapy as a treatment for depression.

Key references

  • Chang SJ, Lee J, An H, Hong WH, Lee JY. Animal‐Assisted Therapy as an Intervention for Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis to Guide Evidence‐Based Practice. Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing. 2021; 18(1):60-7.
  • Charry-Sanchez JD, Pradilla I, Talero-Gutierrez C. Animal-assisted therapy in adults: A systematic review. Complementary therapies in clinical practice. 2018; 32:169-80.
  • Kamioka H, Okada S, Tsutani K, Park H, Okuizumi H, Handa S, et al. Effectiveness of animal-assisted therapy: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Complement Ther Med. 2014 Apr; 22(2):371-90.
  • Lloyd J, Johnston L, Lewis J. Psychiatric Assistance Dog Use for People Living With Mental Health Disorders. Frontiers in veterinary science. 2019; 6:166.

Last reviewed and updated: 27 November 2023