Curcumin

Our rating
 1 smiley: This treatment is promising and may be useful. It has some evidence to support it, but more evidence is needed to be sure it works.

What does this rating mean?

The rating system

  • 3 smiliesThese treatments are very useful. They are strongly supported as effective by scientific evidence.
  • 2 smiliesThese treatments are useful. They are supported by scientific evidence as effective, but the evidence is not as strong.
  • 1 smileyThese treatments are promising and may be useful. They have some evidence to support them, but more evidence is needed to be sure they work.
  • No smiley On the available evidence, these treatments do not seem to be effective.
  • Question markThese treatments have not been properly researched. It is not possible to say whether they are useful or not.
  • These treatments are not recommended and could be dangerousSafety or other concerns have been raised for the use of these treatments.

What is it?

Curcumin is a compound found in plants. It is found in high levels in turmeric, and is also present in ginger. It is responsible for the bright yellow colour of turmeric and can be used as a food colouring. Curcumin can also be purchased as a herbal supplement.

How does it work?

Curcumin is thought to increase the levels of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine in the brain. These are chemical messengers which are thought to be imbalanced in people who have depression.  Curcumin can also influence the HPA axis, which is series of processes in the body that are involved in stress and mood regulation.

Is it effective?

There is some scientific evidence on curcumin for the treatment of depression. Several studies have found that curcumin supplements have been more effective than placebo treatment in reducing depression symptoms. Most often, curcumin has been used by patients who were also taking traditional antidepressant medication. One study found that adding curcumin to regular antidepressant treatment might lead to quicker improvement in symptoms.

While curcumin seems to be a promising treatment, more large scale, placebo-controlled studies are needed to better understand its effectiveness, especially for people who are not also taking regular antidepressant medication.

Are there any disadvantages?

Curcumin may cause some side effects, such as nausea, but is generally well tolerated. However, dietary supplements, including curcumin, may have negative interactions with prescribed medications or other supplements. They should always be taken under the supervision of a health care professional. 

Where do you get it?

Curcumin supplements can be purchased online and from health food shops. Turmeric, a spice which contains curcumin, is available in supermarkets.

Recommendation

Curcumin seems to be a safe addition to antidepressants, however there is not enough good evidence at this stage to recommend it as a stand-alone treatment for depression.

Key references

  • Bergman J, Miodownik C, Bersudsky Y, Sokolik S, Lerner PP, Kreinin A, et al. Curcumin as an add-on to antidepressive treatment: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot clinical study. Clinical Neuropharmacology. 2013; 36(3): 73-7.
  • Fusar-Poli L, Vozza L, Gabbiadini A, Vanella A, Concas I, Tinacci S, et al. Curcumin for depression: a meta-analysis. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2019: 1-11.
  • Kanchanatawan B, Tangwongchai S, Sughondhabhirom A, Suppapitiporn S, Hemrunrojn S, Carvalho AF, et al. Add-on treatment with curcumin has antidepressive effects in Thai patients with major depression: results of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Neurotoxicity Research. 2018; 33(3): 621-33.
  • Lopresti AL, Drummond PD. Efficacy of curcumin, and a saffron/curcumin combination for the treatment of major depression: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2017; 207: 188-96.
  • Lopresti AL, Maes M, Maker GL, Hood SD, Drummond PD. Curcumin for the treatment of major depression: A randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014; 167: 368-75.
  • Sanmukhani J, Satodia V, Trivedi J, Patel T, Tiwari D, Panchal B, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Curcumin in Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Phytotherapy Research. 2014; 28(4): 579-85.

Last updated and reviewed: 1 November 2019